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Friday, 12 June 2020

Swimming

And all matters concerning being in or below water as per Mystara BECMI D&D



Ok, slowly returning to my blog. Even during these awkward times, I must continue with releasing all my work and compilation work. I am still very busy making maps, tables, books and other materials for all of you. I truly hope this is enjoyed.
HAVE FUN, STAY SAFE, SHARE LOVE, GIVE HUGS.



Swimming



According the Rules Cyclopedia all characters may swim, unless the DM decides otherwise.
A character's movement rate is 1/5 his outdoor running speed.
120 yard per round/5=24 yards per round.
A character swimming underwater measures his movement rate in feet. Thus a character who can swim 24 yards per round on the surface can swim at 24' underwater.

Yet many more factors and other rules were introduced in PC3-Creature Crucible-Sea People, rules cyclopedia, and other D&D materials, both canon and fanon, and even my own as seen in http://pandius.com/Threshold_24.pdf page; 91 on the Swimming contest known as the Kylo Run in Karameikos.
Matters like encumbrance, strength, skills, devices, magic, other races, depth, pressure were introduced, along with systems awarity of current and wind yet not combined.

To make clarity in this murky mess of variable rules grouped here and there, the following compilatation of these rules are now merged into one easy system....I hope. 

As can be seen in my other compilation work on skills; http://pandius.com/skills_compilation.pdf









Swimming Skill
A character with swimming Skill knows how to swim and can move according to the rules given in the Swimming section. Those without this Skill can’t swim. They can hold their breath and float, but they can’t really move themselves about in the water. Their movement rate is severely hampered.

Most character growing up on or close by water should have a Swimming skill. 
Most characters growing up elsewhere rarely have a swimming skill.(and this was--and often still is--the same in the real world, even in the middleages. In the real world renaissaince period less people could swim than in the Middle-ages and before due religious or political doctrines, something similar could apply to Glantri, and Darokin)
Remember a Swimming skill is a Dexterity based skill. And like any skills are taught (self or other) and learned by trial and error. The limit a character has in this skill is thus his Dexterity as an adult.
This limit may according the skill rules be increased by 1 for each later learned additional skill slot taken by swimming. This is noted as; Swimming +1, Swimming +2, etc.).
For most characters their Swimming Skill will be as high as their last teacher's skill or their own Dexterity at best. 

According the skill rules; The score of any single skill a character has begins with roll 8+1d10, that was the score equal to that taught from the last teacher (which uses its own skillscore as a maximum possible to teach), if this is higher than the ability the character has, the score is derived from the used ability instead. This means a person with a Dexterity of 13 and a taught (rolled ) swimming skill of 16, will have its swimming skill at 13, yet can go beyond this by using an additional skillslot for each point (in this case 3 skillslots from this teacher). Most characters will keep to the basic skillslot however, and use the other slots for other skills.

A Swimming skill seriously affect the swimming speed and duration.
Strength affects swimming speed:  +1 yard/strength adjustment. This means a weak character swims slower while a strong character swims faster
Constitution affects swimming duration (and holding breath)

How Constitution affects swimming duration: 
A PC’s basic swimming duration before exhaustion sets in is 1 hour per constitution point. 
When this time is passed, constitution checks must be made each Turn (1 Turn = 10 minutes = 60 rounds) and Constitution is reduced by 1 for each failed check. When a character’s constitution = 3, nearby boats seeing the struggling character will usually pick them out of the water. If no boat or any other flotation device, magic or swimming animal is available, a character will drown when constitution eventually hits 0 due to hypothermia and exhaustion. 
Keep in mind that holding a flotation device is dependend on the exhaustion level of the character and the severity of waves.
Do not use the normal rules for exhaustion in addition to this system. Instead, a character is fatiqued after the first 3 consecutive failed swimming checks, seriously fatiqued after 6 consecutive failed swimming hecks and exhausted after 9 consecutive failed swimming checks.
When affected by fatique or exhaustion the character can only recuperate if on shore, a boot, or magically adapted to water. Any other way does not rest the character enough to recuperate the fatique, seriously fatique or exhaustion penalties. Keep the normal Fatique and Exhaustion effects and recuperastion periods.


Wind & Current Effects 
Swimming in rough and moving water is more difficult. Swimming along a current and or winddirection adds the windstrength (0 to 9)  and/or the current (1 to 6) to the movement rate. This number is substracted if swimming agains  the wind and or current. A DM must check this before hand. Side winds or currents are not counted, yet do influence the coarse of a character, as they drag the character in that direction. 
Add these contributing factors together as follows; Wind+ Current = same general direction = add together. Wind + Current= Opposite direction= substract lowest from highest and use that.
Wind + Current= sideways= use the one in (add) or against the PC direction (substract), the other one pushes the PC in its own direction sideways; as described here;
Each swimmer character in these conditions must do a swimming check every 500 yards, and a strength check every 100-yard. If either check fails, a constitution check must be made or the swimmer falls back 100 + (10 yards per failed point) yards. 
If the swimming check fails with 8 or more, the swimmer suffers a 500 + (20 yards per failed point) yards setback, and temporarily (lasting 1 day) has their constitution reduced by 1, and an extra swimming skill check to prevent drowning is required. 
Ignore Strength Checks if the wind strength is less than 2, Ignore the above mentioned duration Swimming checks if there is also no current, and make only a skill check initially, and each when the duration becomes longerthan the character's current constitution.
General Wind Strength; 
This rate is based on the Weather table in Rules Cyclopedia page 90, and the Real World windstrenth table https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind
0= No wind, 1= light air, 2=light breeze, 3=gentle breeze, 4=mooderate breeze, 5=fresh breeze, 6= strong breeze/light Storm, 7=moderate gale, 8= fresh gale, 9=strong gale. Everything higher is unable to swim on the surface or even close to it. Any person caught in winds of strength 10 or higher without adequate magical abilities to survive (aka a survival skill + flotation devices) have only an 8%-1 for each windstrength above 10 chance to survive, and be caught dead, so exhausted the character is nearly dead on a shore far, far away or dragged out of the water by a friendly skipper. 
This survival option is a way for a DM to place a character where he want him and bring the character in a new environment and chances for adventure..

Current strength
0= standing water, 1= low flow water, 2= moderate flow water, 3= strong flow water(most creeks, weak rivers), 4=very strong flow water (most strong rivers, sea currents), 5=rapid flow (waterrapids in rivers, some rare currents in sea, close to whirlpool), 6=thunderflow (springflood, ridal flood, tsunami, dam breach, water fall). 

Becoming wounded might lure available sharks or other predators to take a bite or more Any attack (by shark, NPC or otherwise) requires an extra swimming skill check at -4 to prevent losing 400 yards distance.
DMs may incorporate other difficulties like sharp rocks, Rocky Coast, tangled weeds, unexpected creatures; these also require an extra swimming skill check at -2, to prevent losing 200 yards, or to prevent a succesful touching shore and leaving the water, and might wound the character for 1d4, 1d6 or even 2d6.  
A DM may enforrce extra swimming checks in the case of ripcurrents(current which are short, but different from the main current and may be very harmful next to solid objects like boats, rocks, reefs etc)

In a river a DM might ignore wind, and apply the known current speed instead the more general current strength.However, this will change on each section of a rive; towards the flatlands i will ease down and towards rapids, waterfalls or whirpools it will increase. A storm flood, broken dam, tsunami will of course have its own direction and can create massive impact damages, not alone flushing characters away, and tossing them about. Swimming might help a bit, yet is absolutely no guarantee to survive these.


Encumbrance
One of the most important factors in swimming is encumbrance. what a character carries. This influences the character's swimming speed, and swimming duration.
Keep in mind that worn clothing (normally not counted in encumbrance) must be counted in water and on the surface until fully dried. Use http://pandius.com/What_can_be_Bought.pdf to find out encumbrance of shoes, clothing, and similar.

The more weight a character carries, the more that same weight will drag that character down.  In the table below this dragging down can be seen in the final column of Swimming Rate and Duration. The character must be able to swim against this drag to remain on the surface of the water. So not only limit this the forward speed of the character, this also drags him down. 

So for example; a character with a Strength of 16(+2), a Constitution of 14(+1), and a Swimming Skill of 15, would be able to swim at (15+24+2)=41 yards per round on the surface, and could maintain that for a maximum of 14 x 6=84 Turns+15 Turns=99 Turns=16.5 hours (not counting other handicaps). The duration underwater is controlled by holding breath. If this is magically enabled to be longer it is the duration of that magic or as above minus the drag.

If the same character would be Light encumbered (in his case between 601 and 1000 cn, due the extra 200cn by his strength) he would be able to swim at (15+18+2)=35 yards per round(105 feet) yet the weight would further drag him down a 10 feet. so his total maximum swimming rate would be 105-10=95 feet =31,66 yards per round on the surface and only 35-10=25 feet per round underwater.
And could maintain that for a maximum of 14 x 6=84 Turns+15 Turns-10 Drag=89 Turns=14.8 hours (not counting other handicaps).

If the same character would be Moderate encumbered (between 1000 and 1400cn, due the extra 200cn by his strength) he would be able to swim at (15+12+2)=29 yards per round(87 feet) yet the weight would further drag him down a 20 feet. so his total maximum swimming rate would be 87-20=67 feet =22.33 yards per round on the surface and only 35-20=15 feet per round underwater.
And could maintain that for a maximum of 14 x 6=84 Turns+15 Turns-20 Drag=79 Turns=13.2 hours (not counting other handicaps).

If the same character would be Heavy encumbered (between 1401 and 2200cn, due the extra 200cn by his strength) he would be able to swim at (15+6+2)=23 yards per round(69 feet) yet the weight would further drag him down a 30 feet. So his total maximum swimming rate would be 69-30=39 feet =13 yards per round on the surface and only 23-30= -7 feet per round underwater(in other words he would sink 7 feet for each round).
And could maintain that for a maximum of 14 x 6=84 Turns+15 Turns-30 Drag=69 Turns=11.5 hours (not counting other handicaps).

Etc.etc.

Expelling encumbrance takes at least 1 round for most things expelled individually. An armor or heavy garb is expelled after 1 round for each AC improvement (or Armor Value) the armor or garb gives. 
Expelling items is not swimming, and will cause the character to sink the whole unadjusted drag  each round as per total encumbrance at that round. First when the item is fully expelled, the downward drag by encumbrance can be adjusted by the current encumbrance of the character.


















Flotation Devices
Keep in mind that some items are able to act as floatation devices. These include any items of wood, empty and closed waterskins, barrels or even coffins or trunks and their normal encumbrance is now counted as a negative. 

So if a character has a 100cn heavy 500cn capacity empty barrel nearby, holding such an item lowers his encumbrance by 600cn. If he would blow up a waterskin (holding when full 25 cn liquid) it would reduce his encumbrance 25cn.
Swimming with a flotation device reduces the swimming speed to the underwater rate, and underwater might cause an upward drag depending on its flotation capacity.

An extreme salty sea can have its own ability of (like the real Dead Sea) preventing drowning, by creating a natural buoancy to life forms, yet will cause severe water deprivation in the character. Each passed hour will count as 3 for determining the required intake of clean not-salty water, to prevent water deprivation.







Magic
All the following effects last until the magic ends the normal rules apply~!!!
Ring of Waterbreathing
Magic giving Water Breathing; like the spell, Ring/Potion of Water Breathing
This only prevents drowning, and does not affect anything else.


Magic Giving Freedom; like Ring or spell of Free Action
This gives the character the ability to use weapons as on the surface



Magic giving Swimming; like spell, Ring or belt or footwear of Swimming 
Ring of Swimming
This gives the character a basic Swimming skill equal to its dexterity


Magic giving air around a character; Like the spell Airy water, bubble
This enables the affected character to cast magic underwater, and prevents drowning. It also creates an upward drag of 24 fet/round


Magic or items giving extra speed; Like Haste spell, Potion/Ring of Speed, or flippers.
Flippers (wood or animal material) enables the character to double it normal swimming skill if the character has trained sufficiently in these. A Haste Spell or potion or similar doubles the total swimming speed.
Bowl of Commanding Water Elementals


Magic giving Water Adaptation; like Staff of Elemental Water Adaptation, Ring/staff/bowl of Water Elemental Command
This gives the Character a basic Swimming skill equal to its dexterity and the ability to use weapons as on the surface and the ability to prevents drowning, and cast magic underwater


Magic or items giving buoyancy
These prevent the character from sinking, and thus mostly also from drowning. However these must be attached correctly to the character. if the character is unconcious his/her weight might drag him/her back underwater in unstable or moving water. See above on flotation devices. If underwater it will cause an upward drag of 50 feet per  round


Ring of Waterwalking
Magic giving the ability to walk on water; Like spell, potion, ring or footwear of water walking.
This prevents the character to go underwater. however moving on a moving surface is as difficult as swimming, apply Wind and current effects, and dexterity checks each 500 yards or fall behind as described above. Strength checks and swimming checks are not needed under these circumstances. Running is impossible, and only a walking speed in yards is maximum possible. This magical also creates an upward drag of 50feet per round if underwater.

Magic enabling Survival; like the Survival spell.
This merely prevents the character from drowning, hunger or thirst or lack of air, yet does nothing more. Exhaustion by swimming still applies. As doe impact, misorentation, etc.

Normally spellcasting underwater is NOT possible as magic needs the air to become effective. Afriendly DM could allow a PC to use ALL his breath and cast a single spell while expelling all the air at the same time. This requires of course a succesful ability check depending on the type of spell cast.(Clerical= Wisdom, Magical=Intelligence). When failed or still underwater after the spell is activayed Drowning rules apply..
Magic is possible when adapted to water by being an underwater race (then the same rules apply above water for these creatures), when one is adapted to both surface and underwater (Aquatic Elves, Storm Giants, Sharkkin in their land period, Merrow and Sea Giants the first 3(+con) rounds in the air), When one is undr the influence of Airy Water, Water Adaptation, Bubble magic, but NOT under the influence of Water Breathing. This requires at least 4 months training(+1 month per failed intelligence check at -4) to become adapted to living underwater, and will be lost after 4 months(the same applies for water creatures on the surface if not adapted)

Pressure Resistance           

Range:                        Touch
Base Duration;           1 Turn + 1 Turn / level
Casting Time:              4
Effect:                         creature touched
Component;                Holy Symbol+small prayer
Save:                          None
Known by Clerics of Sea(different races), of Water / Time Immortals. level 2 spell. uncommon
This spell increases the recipient’s resistance to the crushing force of water pressure, allowing him or her to function at greater depths underwater. The spell’s recipient can safely dive to twice his normal depth for each spell used. For example, an unassisted human can normally withstand the effects of pressure to a maximum of 400 feet underwater. A human protected with this spell could safely dive to a depth of 800 feet. The recipient will notice when the limit is reached. To swim deeper a second or third spell will add another base limit to the recipient, which also increases the full duration by the base duration. When this spell is somehow dispelled underwater, the recipient will be instantly vulnerable to the crushing of the water and could die in mere moments. Damages are 1d8hp / 50 feet beyond the limit for the race, each Turn. This spell does not enable water breathing. Most aquatic races know this spell, and some may have an ability with similar effect but unlimted duration to themselves. This spell also removes the harmful effects of caisson disease (see below under Pressure of the Deep), yet the patient must be placed in an enclosed environment (like a barrel) of less than 10 cubic feet, and remain there for the full duration of the spell.
Don't be confused; the term Sea animal in the table only confers to non-fish.
Kraken includes all squid.
Fish will be present in all regions, although adapted to the pressure of their general region. They can go up and down roughly 1000 feet per HD without sustaining damage due pressure differences.
Spermwhales hunt in a single breath, swimming straight down at about 4000 feet holding their breath for 90 minutes. Cuvier's beaked whales are the deepest diving air breathing animals of all Real World scientists tracked one on a dive to 9,874 feet (2,992 m). The dive lasted for 2 hours and 17 minutes, making this whale the longest-diving mammal on record as well as the deepest.We could say the Leviathan whale (see MMMC2; http://pandius.com/Monster_Manual_2.pdf page 498) could assume similar depths.
The Behemoth ( a unique shark as per PWA and MMMC2 page 317-318. some sages describe this monster as a Burrower) only goes to a maximum of 30.000 feet, yet its mass of HP could make it endure greater depth,  Megalodon and cookiecuttersharksSharks go to 3000feet.
Submarine vessels normally go not lower than 1000 feet, with magic this could be tripled at best.beyond that the vessel suffers presurre damage in the same rates. after 50% of its hullpoints it will lose control and leak, taking an additional 1d6 points of damage each 50 feet per Turn(10 minutes).
Other creatures are listed in the MMMC2 and have their maximum depth listed.















Combat in and Underwater (also counts in the Plane of Water, unless in airfilled environments!!)
On the surface all weapons are functional  as normal, although a standard -4 to hit is applied to melee and -6 on missile weapons, due to the instability while in the water and waves. Aquatic creatures attacking on the surface have this also, yet now due the lack of water resistance.

When directing the melee attack from the surface underwater or when attacking underwater the standard -4 to hit is also applied, and Cutting, Slashing, and Smashing melee attacks (this includes all natural attacks) are at an additional -10 to hit, and give only 50% normal total damage, due to the pressure caused by the water itself. Missile weapons like bow only have the standard -6 to hit when attacking from the surface due lightbreaking conditions, and underwater ranges are decreased by 33%.
Crossbows only have the standard -4 to hit, have normal range and damages. 
Abilities as fast draw, multiple attacks are impossible to make underwater with missile weapons.

Thrusting, Piercing melee attacks are as normal although the -4 to hit is still applied

A succesful intelligence check each month staying underwater AND using the weapons regularly can reduce the standard -4 hitroll penalty by 1 to a maximum of 4. For each month thereafter acting on the surface this is reduced again by -1 until it is on the normal -4 after 4 months. This is normal adaptation to a different environment.  The same applies to aquatic beings attacking on the surface.

Breath weapons and most spells only go as deep or far as half the normal range, and give 50% less damage, and saving throws against these are increased by +4.
An exception to this is electricity; this is unhindered in range, yet the effects change; the full range of the spell is used and expelled in a linear direction as intended, and at the end of the range the electricity becomes spheroid in effect. Any object or creature blocking this range caused the spell to end there. A Lightning Bolt becomes a Lightning Ball. For a general rule; this sphere is 1' diameter per HD of the spell, and gives normal damage and uses normal saving throws.

Aquatic casters on the surface using breath weapons or spells see these are double in range and half in damage, with a +4 to saving throws. Electricity cast will completely suprise them as these effects are as normal surface spells and ranges and effects are different.A Lightning Ball becomes a normal Lightning Bolt.

DM's take care in using this on all electrical spells, as some of these are touch-based they will affect the caster underwater unless protected.

Visibility underwater (as per PC3-Creature Crucible-Sea People)
Near the surface of the water there is plenty of light, at least suring the day, but the water distorts the light and reduces visibility. Use the following table to determine visibility in water.


















Drowning

When a character goes underwater, and cannot breath there (or aquatic creature on the surface) he must hold its breath or immediately begin drowning. The character can holds its breath for a number of rounds equal to his current constitution, yet each round of excertion (fighting, panicking, expelling armor,, etc) count as 2 rounds. 
Once a character no longer can holds its breath, the character begins to drown (or suffocate if aquatic). A constitution check must be made each round, with a cumulative penalty of -1 after the first round. The character is at this point exhausted.(THAC0 -2, AC+2, Damage -2 (even 0 is possible), MV 1/3)
Once the character fails this check, he has drowned--but he is not dead yet. Although he does not breath, he will not be dead for a number of rounds equal to 1/3rd his current constitution (round up!!). While in this sate between life and death, the character can be healed in its original environment (on surface if airbreather, underwater if aquatic) by a character with a succesful healing skill or by a character with healing magic (Cure Serious Wonds or better), then he will recover normally
if this happy event does not take place, the character dies. However, he still may be brought back to life with a Raise Dead(Fully) spell.





































Pressure of the deep  
Below the character's racial limit a surface dweller must rest 1 Turn for each period of Turns equal to the character's current constitution or become fatiqued AND suffer 1d8 points of damage per 50 feet over the racial limit by the pressure alone. The spell Pressure Resistance negates this need.
When becoming fatiqued due excertion (like combat) this rest must also be made.
Any character, creature will sense the limit of its race when reached (or the limit the Pressure Resistance spell(s) give).

Surfacing
On itself is pressure above the creatures limit negatable, and not directly important. However when coming from the depth Caisson Disease may afflict the swimmer. When the swimmer (not applicable to aquatic creatures, these have a much higher depth limit and merely dislike the pressure to which surface dwellers have dismay. Aquatic creatures also do never contract Caisson Disease, except when climbing mountains on the surface over 500 feet and falling down , instant or rapid transport) rises more than 10 feet each round coming from a depth over 100 feet, or rises more than 15 feet each round coming from a depth over 500 feet, or when rising more than 20 feet each round coming from a depth over 1000 feet, or when using a Teleportation or similar instant travel, the character must make a saving throw vs paralysis every 50 feet risen  or became affflicted by Caisson Disease. This disease become visible on the surface after about 2 Turns. the character becomes sick, weak, regurgitates, will fall in spasms, his/her constitutionand Strength will permanently be lowered by -2. and they must make each round a saving throw vs paralysis or lose 1d4 hp. This spell can only be cured by a Cure All spell or a Pressure spell(see below) and even then the character must adapt to normal pressure 1 hour for each 100 feet risen. A Create Air spell in an airtight small container (a large barrel will do) with the patient will also remove thee affliction, keeping the same duration.

Sounds
Sounds are louder and carry away over greater distances, yet the orientation is difficult. The water prevents sound damages. yet distances are multiplied by 10 for normal sounds and by 1000! for high tuned pitches (like whales and dolphins do).

Materials
Writings on paper by ink dissolve in 2 turns
Paper will dissolve in 2d10 hours, parchment will loosen up in 1 hour. Leather (including shoes, boots and armor )and other organics will soak up and become hard and brittle when drying later(unless correctly oiled).

Orientation
The vision on sea or any large water surface is obscured by waves, personal movement, water splashes and blurred in the distance. Underwater (as can be seen by the above table) visibility can be severe limited. To orientate any general direction unless up or down requires the character to survey 1 round  minimal, and a succesful Wisdom and Intelligence check, to get a general feel of direction. Getting lost underwater is a chance of 50%(1-3 on 1d6) and on the surface even 66%(1-4 on 1d6)!! One can always sense the direction of the wind and current without any difficulty (unless totally ignoring these due choice), and this can help maintaining the general direction.







Thursday, 24 October 2019

Overland Movement in Karameikos (and actually all over Mystara)

For my work in Threshold Magazine, I adjusted the Movement system in D&D BECMI a bit, as presented in the Rules Cyclopedia. Allen Palmer from the Threshold team did help me in this. Due space limitations we agreed to place this whole section here on my Blog. Which is also a beneficial bonus as it reignites my blog.


Here is an expanded system for overland movement derived from the terrain movement tables on page 88 of the Rules Cyclopedia (RC) and the “Trail & Road Conditions”  section of accessory TM1: “Western Countries Trail Map”  to explain the characteristics of the different route types..
The generic “Trail/Road” terrain category in the RC table is redefined as 6 classifications of paths (taken from TM1), with the other terrain categories described as “Off-road". These classifications are described below using text from TM1, together with tables detailing movement rates, safe locations, military presence, traffic and mishaps that might be encountered.



Characteristics of travel routes




Travel route description
Path width
Off-road
In the Wilderlands of south eastern Karameikos, this classification covers the terrain types of clear, grassland, forest, hills, mountains, and swamp from RC , where no visible trails exist.
n/a
Bad Trails
These trails are barely visible; may branch off occasionally into dead ends; may have dangerous sections (cliffs, narrow passages, unstable terrain). There are rarely any bridges. These trails are often blocked by fallen trees, rockfalls and suchlike.

Examples: Sukiskyn, Segenyev, Sielo, Hokol, Ilyakana, Andreas, Skebos, Kallergan, and  Serkos Trails

Wide enough for one to two horses abreast at best
Poor Trails
These are more distinct than bad trails. However, for wagons or other wheeled transportation they should be treated as bad trails. 

Examples: Sections of Haven Trail marked purple on map, and local Haven Trails
average width is enough for two horses abreast
Fair Trails
These trails are more prominent than poor trails; there may be occasional bridges and safe river fords.

Examples: Vyalia and Callarii Trails
wide enough for four horses abreast
Good Trails
These trails are the best category of unpaved road. There may be water sources along the route

Example: Sections of Haven Trail marked black on map
wide enough for six horses abreast
Minor Roads
These are basic paved roads constructed with packed earth mixed with straw, stones and cement, and covered with stone slabs or cobblestone. Some minor drainage is incorporated to allow rain to run away from the path. As a result of their construction, they have good movement rates, ignoring terrain modifiers. Direction signs are usually found at junctions. Safe spots such as water sources, caravansaries, and small hamlets are easily found and reached from the road. Bridges will be available to cross rivers, etc.

Examples: Scalania Road and the Kelvin/Callarii minor road
These roads generally have a width of six horses abreast.
Major Highways
These major paved routes are constructed on a multi-layer foundation in the Thyatian style. Covered with stone slabs or cobblestone these roads are unaffected by rain and generally have the best movement rates, ignoring terrain modifiers. Drainage from the highway leads into the nearby fields or streams. Direction signs are usually found at junctions.  Safe spots such as water sources, caravansaries, and small hamlets are easily found and reached from the road. Bridges will be available to cross rivers, etc.

Example: Eastron Road (which runs south of The Barrel inn), connecting Specularum over the Fain Flinn Bridge with the Thyatis border and the Machetos Road continuing further to Thyatis City. 
The roads are generally eight horses abreast in width (or more), making movement in both directions easily, allowing travellers from both directions to pass.
In autumn, a paved road may be locally covered in leaves which does not influence mishap or movement rates but makes the road blend in more with the adjacent terrain. A careless driver may travel off the road in such cases. This chance is equal to a mishap chance.


Safe Locations
Off-road
No advisable water sources, no caravansaries, no taverns, or no safe camping sites. No bridges*
Bad Trail
On route caravansaries, taverns, or safe camping sites close to trail; no advisable water sources.
Poor Trail
Bridges unsafe if any, very few water sources, some caravansaries, taverns, or safe camping sites might be available near trail.
Fair Trail
Some water sources, minor caravansaries. taverns. and camping sites available near trail;
Good Trail
Bridges common or easily fordable rivers. Minor caravansaries, taverns, and camping sites commonly found on a trail;
Minor Road
Water sources, caravansaries, small hamlets are easily found and reached from the road. Bridges always available on paved roads.
Major Highway
Water sources, caravansaries, small hamlets are easily found and reached from the road. Bridges always available on paved roads. Directions and road signals commonly found at intersections.

 *(and if there is one, it is owned by local humans, humanoids or monsters expecting a toll—mostly some or all of your gold, sometimes a female companion, animal or you). 

A Typical Poor Trail


Patrols/Military Presence
Off-road
Not patrolled. banditry and humanoid raids very likely
Bad Trail
Rarely patrolled or repaired if at all; banditry and humanoid raids likely.
Poor Trail
Patrolled once a week (10 men +1 leader).. banditry and humanoid raids possible.
Fair Trail
Patrolled once every other day (1d4 men). banditry and humanoid raids uncommon.
Good Trail
Patrolled once or twice a day (1d4 men). banditry and humanoid raids rare.
Minor Road
One or two patrols (1d4 men) day and night. banditry and humanoid raids very rare.
Major Highway
One or two patrols (10 men +1 leader) day and night. banditry and humanoid raids very unlikely.

A Typical Fair Trail


Traffic
Off-road
Locals, individual groups (mostly adventurers or bandits, and local humanoids).
Bad Trail
Locals, one large, heavily armed caravan of 3d4 small wagons every two to four weeks.
Poor Trail
Locals, one medium-sized armed caravan of 1d4+1 small and medium wagons, every one or two weeks.
Fair Trail
Small or medium-sized possibly armed caravans of 1d4+1 small and medium wagons, every week.
Good Trail
Small or medium-sized possibly armed caravans of 1d4 small and medium wagons, every three or four days.
Minor Road
Caravans of any kinds and sizes, armed or not, up to one or two a day, with common individual travellers.
Major Highway
Dozens of caravans of any sort and many individual travellers every day.


Movement rates

Refer to the Terrain Effects on Movement and the Traveling Rates by Terrain tables on page 88 of the Rules Cyclopedia. To simple calculate basic travel time as per Gazetteer 10 Darokin, divide the movement speed by 5; this is the distance in a single terrain you can cross in 8 hours. 90’/30’ would then be 18 miles, and thus 1 mile is crossed in 1Turn+8 minutes (18 minutes). Anything faster will increase mishap chance by 10%.

For each route type in column 1, the DM can see the movement rate in dry weather in column 2. When wet weather occurs as per column 3 that lasts for the period in column 4, the impact on the terrain, route width, patrol frequency and movement rate is as shown in column 5.

It is left to the DM to decide how to reduce the movement rate for a character’s PC travelling during the course of rainstorm or snowfall.

.

A Typical Good Trail after bad weather


















Movement Rates and impacts of rain/snow
Route type
Movement Rate
in dry weather
Rain/Snow conditions that
affect progress
Duration of
rain/snow impact
Rain/snow impact on passage, patrols,  movement rate, and mishap chance
Off-road
Normal for the specific  terrain as per tables on RC page 88
Any rain or snowfall
3 days after light rain;
1d4+1 days after heavy rain;
Snow; 1d3 weeks after thaw sets in.
Ground turns muddy as result of rainfall; laying snow disrupts ease of movement;
Movement rate reduced to 50% normal
Mishap chance as Off-road at 25% chance per ½ mile.

Bad Trails
Normal for the specific terrain as per the tables on RC page 88
Any heavy rain or snowfall of 3 hours or more; or light rain of 6 hours or more;

7 days of clear weather until conditions normal
Ground turns muddy as result of rainfall; laying snow disrupts ease of movement;
No patrols;
Movement rate reduced to 60% normal
Mishap chance as Off-Road

Poor Trails
Normal 100%*
Any heavy rain or snowfall of 6 hours or more; or light rain of 12 hours or more;
6 days of clear weather needed to dry up
Snowfall or rain has turned the road into mud;
Width and Patrol frequency reduced to that of normal Bad Trail;
Movement rate reduced to 66% normal
Mishap Chance as Bad Trail
Fair Trails
Normal 110%*
Any heavy rain or snowfall of 12 hours or more;
4 days of clear weather to dry up
Snowfall. or rain has turned the road into mud;
Width and Patrol frequency reduced to that of Poor Trail;
Movement rate reduced to 66% normal
Mishap Chance as Poor Trail
Good Trails
Normal 120%*
Any heavy rain or snowfalls of 12 hours
3 days of clear weather to dry up
Snowfall, or rain has turned the road into mud;
Width and Patrol frequency reduced to that of Fair Trail;
Movement rate reduced to 66% normal
Mishap Chance as Fair Trail
Minor Road
Normal 130%*
Snow
1 day of clear weather above freezing per accumulated foot of snow is required to clear a road
Mostly unaffected by rain;
A foot or more of accumulated snow renders road benefits useless;
Width and Patrol frequency reduced to that of Good Trail;
Movement rate reduced to 66% normal
Mishap Chance as Fair Trail
Major Highways
Normal 150%*
Snow


1 day of clear weather above freezing per accumulated foot of snow is required to clear a road
Unaffected by rain;
A foot or more of accumulated snow renders road benefits useless;
Width unaffected, Patrol frequency reduced to that of Good Trail;
Movement rate reduced to 66% normal
Mishap Chance as Fair Trail
* as a percentage of the clear/grassland terrain rate from RC pg 88. Ignore terrain modifiers. A road/Trail; passing through moor, mountain, forest, or else gives always movement as clear/grassland terrain.

DM may adjust duration of muddy conditions during warmer (50%) or colder seasons (200%).

On Fair or Good Trails, for the first two weeks after winter in colder regions, or after serious downpours, expect to find roadworks in various locations for maintenance. These will slow traffic to 80% normal movement rate. For Minor Roads, such roadworks will reduce normal movement rate to 100%, while on Major Highways the normal movement will reduce to 120%. If maintenance is not carried out, aroad’s benefits drop to one step lower for 10 years, and a trail’s benefits will do so after 2 years. A DM may decide that what is currently a trail (unpaved road) was previously a functioning paved road (like the Haven Trail most probably has been).


A Typical Minor Road

























Roadworks

Where bad weather or general deterioration has damaged routes, the authorities will send repair crews to make good the trails/roads. Sections under repair will be of varying length dependent on terrain and the amount of damage caused. Consequently, a stretch of route may be subjected to multiple roadwork delays as the repair crews move from one area of damage to the next.

Repair crews are limited in number and are usually composed of workers local to the site. If the crews are sent by state authorities, the crews will live in wagons or tents near the works, if no local boarding is available. The state managed crews will sometimbe of indentured labourers (on Thyatian roads, such crews may also include slaves).

Repair material is mostly reused from the damaged road or is brought in from elsewhere. All these factors mean that in the two weeks or so after winter, a traveller can encounter a variety of road conditions – normal/repaired, damaged or under repair. As a result, smooth passage cannot be guaranteed.


A Typical Major Highway


Mishap Chances
Real or readjusted trail/road conditions
Chance of Mishap
Occurrence
Mishap Type if occurs
Minor
Major
Off-road
25% per 1 mile
0-55%
56-99%
Bad Trail
25% per 2 miles
0-65%
66-99%
Poor Trail
25% per 4 miles
0-70%
71-99%
Fair Trail
25% per 8 miles
0-75%
76-99%
Good Trail
25% per 16 miles
0-80%
81-99%
Minor Road
25% per 24 miles
0-85%
86-99%
Major Highway
25% per 32 miles
0-90%
91-99%
Note: In rain/snow, mishap chance are increased - see Movement Rate table above


Mishaps



Minor mishaps are; Lost horseshoe, Hurt ankle of draft animals or guards, damaged wheel, toppled load, snapped reigns, snapped load ropes, etc. Minor mishaps can be resolved in a single hour by craft or simple treatments (including magic). Most wagons have the spare parts or repair items needed for 20 such happenings on each individual trip. These can be refilled at any settlement for 12 to 18 sp per happening used.

Major Mishaps might happen only if travelling outside the roads or trails (or if roads have been severely damaged; earthquakes, floods, fallen trees) to wagons and ridden/loaded animals. Depending on the area (DM use logic please) this is 25% every 16 miles (flat terrain) to 25% every 4 miles (Forest) to 25% every 2 miles (rocky). Or if there is an obstruction or damage to a road or trail the risk is only 10% in passing that single obstruction.

Major mishaps are; broken axle, broken wheel, wounded animal or any walker, lost load or wagon parts. Most major mishaps can be resolved only if the necessary equipment (spare axle, spare wheel, etc) or has the (magical) means to cure broken ankles, wounded animals etc. Major mishaps need a minimum of 1+1d4 hours to resolve non-magically when the tools, skills and equipment are available. It might be possible that a wagon becomes stuck due to a broken wheel or axle when these are unavailable. For prices of these see; http://pandius.com/What_can_be_Bought.pdf page 55. Magic correctly used might be able to resolve many of these issues, but this depends on the DM, the circumstances and if the PC’s (and hence Players) are clever to use their magic as such. A DM might reward these characters with; Total spell levels of magic used x10 as personal XP. This is the main reason good roads are created and used, as the better the road, the shorter the journey, with less mishaps.
Typical example of a Major Mishap; a broken axle



























Other free explanatory images on Mystara (real world roman) roads can be found here; https://clipground.com/roman-road-clipart.html